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A Partnership for Sustainable Air Quality Improvement in Bangkok
|In Thailand and throughout Asia, diesel vehicles – such as pick-up
trucks, buses, and delivery trucks - are the backbone of transport systems.
Unfortunately, diesel vehicles are responsible for exhaust emissions that
have considerable environmental and health impacts. The scale of these emissions
increases with poor vehicle maintenance, improper vehicle repair, use of
older vehicle technology, low fuel quality, fuel adulteration, lack of monitoring
and enforcement of standards, and poor institutional capacity.
There are over 10,000 diesel-powered buses in Bangkok.
Buses account for more than 50% of all passenger trips.
Several technical and policy options exist to address these
problems, ranging from improved transport management and driver behavior
to new technologies based on cleaner diesel or alternative fuels. However,
there is very limited real-world information and data on the possible
emissions reductions of a combination of policies and technologies in
the context of developing countries, and this lack of information hampers
the selection and implementation of effective measures and programs. Partly
as a result, few cities in developing countries have taken a comprehensive
approach to control diesel emissions.
The “Developing Integrated Emission
Strategies for Existing Land
Transport” (DIESEL) Program aims at developing a comprehensive understanding
of in-use diesel vehicles, testing various emission control options, and
improving decision-making for better urban air quality in Asian cities.
Bangkok, Thailand, has been chosen the pilot city for implementing the
DIESEL Program. In Thailand, the DIESEL Program is implemented by the
Pollution Control Department
and the Department of
Land Transport, with assistance from the World
Bank and the U.S.-Asia Environmental Partnership, a regional program
of the United States Agency
for International Development. Public-private partnerships with strategic
industries and research institutions provide additional support.
Current Status of Air Quality in Bangkok
Thai Air Quality Monitoring Network
Pollution Control Department (PCD) began monitoring air quality in Thailand
in 1983. PCD’s 71-site monitoring network collects information on
a variety of pollutants, such as CO, NO2, SO2, and ground-level ozone.
The Pollution Control Department has 71 air quality monitoring sites
Click here for
more information on Thailand’s air quality monitoring network. (0.21MB)
Institutional Arrangements for Air Quality Management
Several agencies share the responsibility for air quality management in Thailand.
here for a summary of the responsibilities of the agencies
Vehicle Emission Regulations and Data
Emission regulations for diesel vehicles are divided into emission standards for Light Duty
Diesel Vehicles and standards for Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles. New diesel
vehicle regulations are in line with European standards and emissions
|Light and Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicle Emission Standards|
|Type ||Level||Reference Standards
|Light Duty Diesel Engine||
- for Direct Injection
- Ref. Weight not more than 1,250 kg.
- Ref. Weight more than 1,250 kg.
- Direct injection Engine
|TIS1875-1999|| Oct 1, 1999|
Oct 1, 2000
Sep 30, 2001
|Heavy Duty Diesel Engine||2||995/542(A)EEC (EURO 1)
|| TIS1290-1995||May 12, 1998|
|3||95/542(A)EEC(EURO 2)||TIS1295-1998||May 23, 2003|
New diesel vehicle regulations are based on European standards and emission test procedures.
here for more information on vehicle emissions regulations
and data. (90 KB)
PM Concentration and Health Impacts
|Particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel
vehicles pose a major health threat in Bangkok and
other Asian cities. Fine particulates categorized
as PM10 (less than 10 microns) and PM2.5 (less than
2.5 microns) penetrate deep into the lungs and cause
respiratory illness. The health costs of PM emissions
are forecast to be around 20 billion Baht in 2004.
Since the late Nineties, PM emissions have declined
in Bangkok through improved mobile and other source
here for more information on PM concentration
and health impacts.
The DIESEL Program aims to facilitate a better understanding of factors
affecting vehicular emissions, to develop knowledge-based reference tools, and to propose cost-effective control and strategic policy options in order to help policymakers implement effective measures for in-use
diesel vehicle pollution reduction (click on link for an explanation
of why DIESEL is focusing on in-use vehicles). The Program places emphasis on applying the findings to actual attempts to promote sustainable development
instead of leaving them simply as a database or policy recommendations. Thus, providing policymakers with capacity building opportunities is an important aspect of DIESEL activities.
The Program was formulated according to five principal objectives:
- Enhance the capacity of local stakeholders in Bangkok and other cities
to understand the factors affecting local and global emissions of their
in-use diesel vehicle fleet.
- Analyze the potential to reduce local emissions, focusing on Particulate
Matter (PM), and improve fuel or energy efficiency of selected technical
alternatives of interest to major cities.
- Assess the effectiveness of a select number of viable and affordable
policies and technical measures to reduce diesel vehicle emissions that
maintain or improve overall accessibility of the poor to the transport
- Prepare tools to assist decision makers in developing urban diesel
emission action plans that reflect the political, social, and economic
implementation realities of developing countries.
- Disseminate research findings through the Clean Air Initiative networks
in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
There are three components of the DIESEL Program in Bangkok, as shown
in the figure below. Components 1, 2 and 3 are part of the DIESEL Pilot
in Bangkok, while dissemination activities will be part of the overall
DIESEL Program, directly coordinated by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian
Cities (CAI-Asia) and its partners. Click on link to see the specific
program activities under each of these components.
DIESEL is jointly implemented by the Pollution Control Department and
the Department of Land Transport with support from a wide-range of stakeholders.
The Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities coordinates the inputs of international
partners, which include the World Bank, the United States-Asia Environmental
Partnership, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the
Clean Air Task Force. Alliances with multinationals such as Volvo and
Lubrizol and Thai private sector companies are also an important part
of DIESEL’s implementation strategy.
Pollution Control Department
||The Pollution Control Department (PCD) coordinates the
City Program Management Team (CPMT), which is responsible
for the implementation of the pilot program in Bangkok.
The Automotive Emissions Laboratory
of the PCD is also involved in implementing
the DIESEL Program. Thai
(0.16 MB) on the Automotive Emissions
Laboratory is available here. PCD has a successful
record of accomplishment implementing programs that
have improved air quality throughout Thailand. For
information on the success of other PCD air quality
Department of Land Transport
Department of Land Transport (DLT) exercises responsibility for
on-road enforcement of vehicle safety and emissions standards. In
association with the DIESEL Program, DLT will manage the collection
of computerized vehicle registration records of existing in-use diesel
vehicles in Bangkok.|
Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities
Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI-Asia) promotes and
demonstrates innovative ways to improve the air quality of Asian cities
through partnerships and sharing experiences. The Secretariat of CAI-Asia
is jointly shared by the World Bank and Asian Development Bank, and
its members come from national government agencies, Asian cities,
NGOs and academia, private sector companies, and international development
agencies and foundations. |
United States - Asia Environmental Partnership
United States - Asia Environmental Partnership (US-AEP) is an
initiative of the U.S. Agency for International Development that promotes
environmentally sustainable growth and improved quality of life in
six Asian countries - India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka,
Thailand, and Vietnam. US-AEP is playing a key role in conducting
the DIESEL Stratified Survey to quantify factors that affect emissions
from diesel vehicles.|
This section describes each of the components, provides updates about each project activity, and presents key information and data that has
been collected in each component thus far. To see a more detailed timeline of the project, please click on the following link.
Component1: Gathering City-Specific Data
The first component of the DIESEL Program focuses on gathering existing
information and relevant data for the eventual assessment of policies
and measures to reduce diesel emissions in Bangkok. The Program has undertaken,
or is in the process of undertaking, a number different actions, including:
1. Researched a number of topics related to diesel vehicle emissions in Bangkok, including:
OR Click here
for the complete report. (1.32 MB)
2. Collected information on the current status of air quality in Bangkok:
3. To supplement the existing data, completed a
(1.46 MB) of the owners of diesel-engine vehicles targeted at select characteristics,
i.e. type, age, mileage, maintenance practice, and use (click on the link
for the final report).
4. Estimate particular matter (PM) emission factors for different diesel
vehicle types under conditions more representative of “real-world”
conditions with the objective of estimating overall emissions. To this
end, the following tasks will be performed:
- Collect and evaluate existing data on the modal share of different
vehicle types, age and mode of operation.
- Through baseline emission testing, establish a limited number of diesel
vehicle emission factors for use in an emissions inventory
(click on link to view the
testing protocol (16
KB), including driving cycles, that has been established).
- Develop an emissions inventory for diesel vehicles and feed the results
back to a larger program building a city-wide emissions inventory working
in partnership with the environment agency.
Component2 : Analysis of Policy and
The second component of the program will study the emission reduction
potential of a number of policy and technical options. A few policy and
technical options will be analyzed in detail for their emission reduction
potential and cost-effectiveness. The tests will quantify the costs and
scope for emission reduction, and assess the operational challenges under
real-world conditions. A number of activities will be implemented under
this component, including:
Component3 : Develop Action Plans and Stakeholder
The pollution reduction options identified under Component 2 can achieve
their intended results only if they are accepted and implemented by stakeholders.
The selected options will be analyzed and discussed from economic, environmental,
technical, stakeholder, social, and sustainability perspectives. Only
those options that are widely accepted have a real chance to succeed and
an action plan around those options will be implemented. To accomplish
this, the following tasks will be undertaken:
- Engage in policy dialogues among stakeholders to discuss selected
options using the analytical and informational tools developed
- Discuss social, economic, and political difficulties vs. environmental
benefits of different options and decide on options to be implemented
- Develop action plans for options to be implemented
The outcomes of the study, including the knowledge base and analytical
tools, will be discussed in expert panels and disseminated
through the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI-Asia)
to a number of partner cities in developing countries.
At the end of the project, an event will be organized
to bring together leading experts, key companies, and
decision makers to communicate the outcomes of the project.
Furthermore, a section of the Clean Air Initiative’s
web site will be dedicated to the program, and the Clean
Air Initiative’s distance learning courses will
be used to disseminate the information worldwide.
Emission Testing for Developing Bangkok Emission Factors are now performing
at PCD automotive emission laboratory (from Oct 18, 2004 until August 2005)
DIESEL’s second planning meeting was held with partners, collaborators,
and local agencies in February. The objective of the meeting was to provide
an overview of current progress and future activities, to invite comments
and suggestions, and to discuss the needs and specific opportunities for
current and potential partners.
Summary of Second Planning Meeting (February 17, 2004)
The second planning meeting was held with the partners, collaborators
and local agencies in Thailand on February 17, 2004 in Bangkok at PCD.
The objective of the meeting was to provide an overview of current progress
and future activities, to invite comments and suggestions, and to discuss
the needs and specific opportunities for current and potential partners.
The meeting was attended by 84 stakeholders represented a wide range
of stakeholders, including private bus companies, bus operator associations,
traffic police, vehicle manufacturers and fuel oil companies, local and
foreign emissions control technology providers, international agencies,
and a large number of government agencies from the steering committee.
While there were formal presentations, a lot of the time was devoted to
discuss technical issues and provide a neutral perspective on various
The major observations for the meeting and follow up discussions can
be summarized as follows:
1. Emissions from diesel in-use vehicles are a major issue and can be
controlled by policy and technology options. Implementation of identified
options is not easy. The DIESEL program and specifically the Bangkok Pilot
represents a unique opportunity for the stakeholders to collaborate and
agree on a unified protocols for various tasks to facilitate replication
of such programs and use of data for other cities.
2. The DLT database is being revised and the stratified survey being
conducted will provide us with the information needed to design the test
matrix for this project. The stratified survey will have to be modified
and information on vehicle categories 5-9 (Bus and Truck) will be collected
3. The most effective way to reduce the number of gross polluters (buses
and trucks with excessive visible smoke and high PM emissions) is by encouraging
or mandating good maintenance practices. Experience in Hong Kong and elsewhere
is that a loaded test in I & M process is more effective than the
free acceleration test currently used in Thailand, based on international
experience. For broad based support and acceptability of the program,
visible gross polluters needs to be dealt with and police can play an
important role their identification. PCD and DLT will need to explore
feasibility and modality of introducing loaded emissions test as a part
of their I & M system in Bangkok for the diesel commercial vehicles.
4. PCD has a good laboratory and staff for emissions factor measurements
(one of five or six around the world for heavy duty dynamometer). The
current heavy duty vehicles test dynamometer has not been calibrated for
actual road load for local condition. This can be obtained by a coast-down
test (EPA provided software for this test). PCD may be able to get this
from the manufacturers too.
5. A good base line of emissions from a wide variety of vehicle categories
but relatively wide confidence level may be acceptable. In particular,
the number of tests and the associated confidence level, depends on the
magnitude of emissions reduction desired to be delivered by the adoption
of particular improvement strategies. Where technologies can only deliver
small reductions more tests and more stringent procedures are needed.
Given the limited resources for testing, it is important to test technologies
and strategies which are likely to be effective or viable in Asia.
6. Length of the driving cycle. The proposed driving cycle for Bangkok
is good and representative of actual conditions but is too long. It is
desirable to shorten this driving cycle and still be representative of
the local conditions. This will reduce lab time per vehicle, reduce risks
of tire failures and increase the number of tests.
7. Continuous PM monitoring systems have been demonstrated to generate
reliable and comprehensive data for emissions factor measurements, particularly
if the cumulative emissions measured by these systems can be calibrated
against a traditional filter measurement, taken in parallel over the whole
cycle. PM measurements during different phases of the driving cycle have
potential to increase the value of gravimetric (filter) PM measurements,
but only over fairly extended drive cycle segments.
8. Participants showed interest in having an analytical tool like the
IDEAS model. Participants were willing to work with us on developing the
framework to analyze the technical and institutional options and scenarios
for controlling diesel emissions.
9. We should explore possibility of establishing relationship with universities
so that their students can assist with data gathering and modifications
of the excel based program for Thailand.
10. The topic of private sector contribution was discussed at length
and while many in the audience showed interest and filled out a short
survey. In order to secure core project funding from U. S. Agency for
International Development (USAID) to match World Bank and other contributions,
project would need to provide letters of intent to USAID demonstrating
actual contributions from private sector and other partners.
11. Project would send the sample letter of intent that will send to
USAID along with the project proposal to each organization by March 1,
2004. Each organization would change the content and add their contribution
in the letter and send back to the project.
12. Need to improve our outreach and information dissemination locally
and internationally were mentioned by some of the participants.
13. During the meeting, alternative fuel is one of the issues had been
discussed. PTT representative addressed that in many major cities such
as Mexico, LA, Mumbai, Sydney etc. are promoting using natural gas for
mass transportation since it produces much better emission than diesel,
particularly PM. For Thailand, which there is indigenous natural gas reserves,
therefore natural gas could be the most reasonable potential fuel option
because it does not only provide better emission but it also help the
country reduce imported fuel reliance. The proper vehicle selection together
with the study of NGV emission and utilization may be considered as one
option in DIESEL project.
To explore how your organization can partner with DIESEL contact
|Project Management Group
(Steering Committee Chair Person)
Deputy Director General, PCD
Director of Air Quality and Noise Management Bureau, PCD
Jitendra (Jitu) Shah
(World Bank Project Manager)
Senior Environmental Engineer, The World Bank
(World Bank Project Coordinator)
Senior Environmental Specialist, The World Bank
(PCD Project Coordinator)
Environmental Officer, PCD
|World Bank Advisory Group
||PCD Advisory Group
Senior Energy and Environment Specialist, The World Bank
Urban Environmental Specialist, The World Bank
Sarath K. Guttikunda
Environmental Specialist, The World Bank
Director of Automotive Air Pollution Division, PCD
(PCD Laboratory Manager)
Environmental Officer, PCD
Environmental Officer, PCD